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Strong influence on the youth and the general theory of adolescence had psychoanalysis. Its founder, Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) – has not created a systematic theory of adolescence, but also put forward a number of important points about the nature of adolescent and youth sexuality, emotional processes and characteristics of youth lichnosti.1 These ideas were further developed by his daughter Anna Freud and numerous followers.
The most influential representative neofreydizma in psychology development in general and youth in particular was a famous American psychologist Erik Erikson (1902-1982) .2 Human Development, to Erickson, is the sum of three interrelated, although the autonomous processes of somatic development, studied biology , the development of a conscious “I” studied hologiey psychic, and social development, studied social sciences. A major development of the law, “epigenetic principle”, according to which each new stage of development, there are new phenomena and properties that did not exist at the earlier stages of the process. The transition to a new phase of development takes place in the form of a “normative crisis”, which looks like a pathological phenomenon, but in fact expresses the normal growing pains. The transition to a new phase of development is possible only with the permission of the ground the contradictions inherent in the previous phase. If the conflict is not allowed, it will inevitably affect later.
Human development requires joint action of innate and Bre annum components. Public representatives, educators, parents associated with the child’s own innate needs. If a child is in need of emotional warmth, parents feel the need to look after and nurse the baby. That coincidence of these two different directional needs provides the desired result. At the same time, each company has specific institutions, within and through the co-toryh socialization of children. Therefore, although the overall sequence and main tasks of the main phases of epigenesis are universal, invariant HN, typical ways of solving these problems vary from one society to another. Society prepares the individual to perform certain social functions-tion, identifying ways in which the very indie kind arising in the path of his life tasks.
Erickson divides the whole way of life in eight phases, each of which has its toryh-specific tasks and can be resolved favorably or unfavorably for the future.
The first phase-infancy. Its main task is to develop a baby’s unconscious sense of “basic trust” to the outside world. Serve as the primary means of parental care and love. If the “basic trust” does not occur in the infant a sense of “basic confidence” to the world, anxiety, which may occur in the adult form of closure, but the ear-a, etc.
In the second phase of e-childhood-the child develop a sense of autonomy, and their personal values or their opposite-shame question. Growth of the child’s independence, starting with the management of their forests, those items, to give him a choice, so at this stage lays the future personality traits such as a sense of responsibility, respect, discipline and order.
Tretyafaza game-age (about 5 to 7 years), develop a sense of initiative, the desire to do something. If this desire is blocked, there is a feeling of guilt. In this age group is crucial to the game, communication with peers, allowing the child to use different roles, develop imagination, etc. At this stage the sense of fairness, understood as a matching rule-
The main growth of the fourth phase of preschool-age sense of enterprise and efficiency, the ability to achieve goals. Core values are efficiency and competence. In the negative form of the child a sense of incomplete-STI, which originally comes from the consciousness of their incompetence, lack of success in solving some specific problems, mostly related to teaching, and then spreads to the whole person. At this age, then sealed dyval attitude to work.
The fifth phase-youth-characterized by the appearance of his feelings directly vtorimosti, personality, different from others, there is a negative version of the same diffuse, vague “I”, role and personality of uncertainty. A typical feature of this phase of development, “role moratorium” (from the Latin. Moratorium-delay): the range of roles performed by expanding, but the young man does not assimilate these roles seriously and permanently, but as it tries to ad-satisfies them. Erickson detailed analysis of the mechanisms of formation of the samosozna, a new sense of time, psychosexual interests, and pathogenic processes and options for the development of youth.
Estay W-phase and youth – is characterized by the appearance of the needs and abilities of the intimate psychological intimacy with another person, including sexual intimacy. Its alternative is the feeling of isolation and loneliness.
The most important acquisition of the seventh phase of adulthood, and creative activity and concomitant sense of productivity. They appear not only in work but also in the care of others, including descendants, needs re-give your experience, etc. In the negative version of a sense of stagnation reaction (stagnation).
The last, eighth phase-maturity, or old age, is characterized by a sense of satisfaction, fullness of life, use of debt-filled, and in the negative case, despair and disappointment. The highest virtue of this age-detachment and wisdom, ie ability to look at the work of his and other people’s hands from a certain height.
Erickson’s work contains many valuable observations on the development of emotions and self-awareness in youth, as well as typical for this age psychopathology (disorder temporal perspective, the crisis of identity, etc.). However, Erickson pays little attention to the intellect, which affects the content of all the mental processes. Too often, it does not distinguish between singular recognition of certain mental states of their immediate Surviving-tion. Erikson’s stages of epigenetic model does not always correlate with a certain chronological age, and some aspects of identity formation, which Erikson refers to the youth, many have experienced in adolescence. Stressing the “crisis”, conflictual development, Erickson understates his inherent continuity. Crises in the development of look in his concept consequence of contradictions between ripened child internal properties and the environment, and the tumors themselves age he formulates unnecessarily strict and normative. Meanwhile, the real content of the “autonomy”, “initiative” or “identity” varies at different stages of the life and depending on the nature of the individual.
Of alternative theories. Alternative theories of adolescence analyze different aspects of the development, physical maturation, cognitive development, formation of identity, changes in the structure of communication, motivational processes, etc. But in a sense they are all inter-executive. The trouble starts only when one view proclamation decreases only right that excludes others. That is what happened in Soviet psychology.
In 1920. Soviet psychologists paid teenage years a lot of attention, and her own psychological issues were addressed on a broad social background, taking into account the diverse socio-economic factors and options mature. Were studied in detail and describes the pattern of sexual maturation, intellectual interests, forms of social activity and the content of the inner world of teenagers and young men. Soviet scientists knew and widely used overseas psycho-logical literature, the most important work of foreign scientists without much delay translated into Russian.
The best work of the Soviet period is V.E.Smirnova book “The Psychology of adolescence” (1929). But she was not greatly influenced by edinstvennoy.3 scientists have also lectures Vygotsky “Pedology teenager”, coming out in individual issues in 1929-1931.
The theory of the development of higher mental functions, Vygotsky. According to his theory of the development of higher mental functions, “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears on stage twice, on two levels, first-social, then the psychological, first between people as a category interpsychic, and then inside the child as a category of intra-psychic” .4
In contrast to the mechanistic concepts that have dealt with the development of the child as a result of the impact of “external” social environment, Vygotsky emphasized that the environment must not be considered as a “development environment” policy, Thoraya outside determines the development of the child: the impact of the environment itself changes in quantity and quality, depending on public earlier encountered psychological characteristics, including age-specific child, they are refracted.